Genetic information, stored in the chromosomes and transmitted
to daughter cells through DNA replication is expressed through
transcription of RNA and, in the case of mRNA, subsequent
translation into polypeptide chains. This flow of information
from DNA to RNA to protein is termed the “central dogma” and is
descriptive of all organisms (with the exception of some viruses
that have RNA as the repository of their genetic information).
The process of translation requires a genetic code, through
which the information contained in the nucleic acid sequence is
expressed to produce a specific of amino acids. Any alteration
in the nucleic acid sequence may result in an improver amino
acid being inserted into the poly peptide chain, potentially
causing disease or even death of the organism.